Define computer network works

Define Computer Network Works - Securium Solutions

An ISP (Internet Service Provider) is a company that provides internet connectivity to its customers and has a list of various IP addresses. ISP then assigns a public IP address to the router and this address is the public identity of the router in the internet world. A router is a networking device that is used to connect multiple devices (computer network) to form a network, and it has 3 identities:

(i) Public IP address

(ii) Private IP address

(iii) MAC address

A private IP address is an address that is used within a private network and they are not routable on the public internet. Devices with a private IP address can communicate with each computer network within the same network but they cannot communicate with the devices outside of that network.

A Router has a list of these private IPs and these are designed to be used for local addressing to various devices such as computers, printers, mobiles, televisions, etc. One of the major advantages of private IPs is that they are hidden from the public internet through which a level of security is enhanced.

Whenever a new device connects with the internet, An Address resolution protocol (ARP) is used to assign a new private IP address to that new device, it’s also used in the communication of two devices within the same network.

Assignment of IP address to the new device:

  1. First, the user enters the required credentials to connect with the router and a handshake file is created and validated by the router.
  2. Then, ARP releases a packet having an IP address and checks with other devices if this IP is assigned or not by saying “ Who is (say) “.
  3. From the other connected devices if there isn’t any device with that IP address then this IP is assigned to that new device.

After the connection of that device with the router, this forms a computer network. 

The connected device has 2 identities:

(i)   Private IP: The private IP is assigned by the router.

(ii)  MAC AddressIt’s a unique hardware address that is assigned to each device that connects to a network.

Connection with Internet

 When devices on a private network access the internet, their Public IP (Router’s public address) which was assigned by the ISP is visible on the internet. The process of allowing multiple devices on a private network to share a single public address is known as Network Address Translation (NAT).

Let’s suppose a device wants to access a webpage on the internet, the requested webpage is shown via the following steps:

(i) First, the request is sent to the router, and the router sends the request to the web server.

(ii) Then, the server processes the request and reverts the requested webpage to the   router’s public address.

(iii) Then, the router sends the requested web page to the MAC address that is linked with that IP address by using the ARP request.

(iv) The device is now able to view the requested webpage.’


Abhi Gaur

Cyber Security Intern

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