Today we are going to continue from where we left in last Blog in our Series of ICS/SCADA Blogs.
We have three Levels here to Discuss Level 2, Level 1 and 0 in Purdue Model.
LEVEL 2 PROTOCOLS:
6LoWPAN: IPv6 over Low Power Personal Area Networks(6LoWPAN) is an Internet Protocol used for communication between smaller and low-power devices with limited processing capacity; it is mainly used for home and building automation.
DNP3: DNP3 (Distributed Network protocol 3) used to interconnect components within process automation systems.
DNS/DNSSEC: It provides a way to authenticate DNS response data and can secure information provided by DNS.
FTE: Fault Tolerant Ethernet (FTE) is designed to provide rapid network redundancy, and each Node is connected twice to a single LAN through dual network interfaces.
HART-IP : Used to integrate WirelessHART gateways and HART Multiplexers tightly and efficiently for sending & receiving digital information.
IEC 60870-5-101/104: This is an extension of the IEC 101 protocol with some modifications in transport, network, link, and physical layer services. This is for communication between control station and substation through the standard TCP/IP network.
SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol is a messaging protocol containing a set of rules to administrate data transfer between client and server using the XML message format.
LEVEL 0 AND 1 PROTOCOLS:
BACnet: Building Automation and Control Network is a data communication protocol designed for building automation and control networks that implements standards such as ASHRAE, ANSI, and ISO 16484-5.
EtherCAT: Ethernet for Control Automation Technology is an ethernet based fieldbus system that is appropriate for both hard and soft real time computing necessities in automation technology.
CANopen: Protocols used for embedded networking applications like vehicle networks. High Level communication protocol based on Controller Area Network.
Crimson: Crimson is common programming platform used for a variety of Red Lion Products such as G3 and G3 Kadet series HMIs. Data Station Plus, Modular controller, and the productivity station.
DeviceNet: Protocol in automation industry for interconnecting control devices to exchange data. It is another variant of Common Industrial Protocol (CIP).
Zigbee : Short range communication protocol used for devices that transfer data intermittently at a low data rate in a restricted area. 10-100m
MELSEC-Q : Provides open and seamless network environment integrating different levels of automation networks such as CC-Link IE, high-speed, and large-capacity ethernet-based integrated open networks.
Niagara Fox: Building automation Protocol used between niagara software systems developed by Tridium.
Omron Fins: Omron Fins is used by PLC programs for transferring data and performing other services with remote PLC connected on an Ethernet network. It can be used by remote devices such as FieldServer for Transferring data.
PCWorx: PCWorx is used in many ICS components, and they make a series of inline Controllers (ILCs). These controllers use different ICS protocols and some common TCP/IP protocols.
Profibus: Profibus is complex than modbus, and is designed and developed to address interoperability issues. It is employed in Process automation and factory automation fields.
Sercos II : Serial real time communication system comprises digital drive interface appropriate for use in industrial machines. it is used in complex motion control applications with high specification designs.
S7 Communication: S7 is siemens proprietary protocol that runs between PLCs of Siemens S7-300/400 family and is used in PLC programming and for accessing PLC data from SCADA
WiMax: Worldwide interoperability for Microwave access is based on the standard IEEE 802.16 and is envisioned for wireless metropolitan area networks. WiMax operates at frequencies between 2.5 and 5.8 Ghz with a transfer rate of 40Mbps.
That’s it for today, finally we have finished looking at all the protocols we use in OT.
We will be working on further steps we need to carry out in OT ICS/SCADA in our series of Blogs, Stay tuned.
SAM NIVETHAN V J
SECURITY ANALYST & TRAINER